Kuznetsov Valeriy Nikolaevich, Doctor of historical sciences, associate professor, professor of sub-department of history of the fatherland, regional studies and international relations, Ulyanovsk State University (42 Lva Tolstogo street, Ulyanovsk, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Background. The problem of the beginning of the revolution remains one of the most difficult in historical science. Analysis of the history of political parties that had a serious impact on the all-Russian processes taking place in 1916 – early 1917. will help to better understand this historical phenomenon. The purpose of the work is to determine their role in the formation of a revolutionary crisis in Volga region, one of the important regions of Russia. To achieve this goal, their organization, size, tactics, and level of public support should be considered.
Materials and methods. The implementation of research tasks was achieved on the basis of data from the funds of the State Archives of the Russian Federation, the State Archives of Ulyanovsk Region, the regional periodicals of the study period, memoirs. The methodological potential includes a comparative historical method, the use of which allows to compare the level of organization and activity of political parties in Middle and Lower Volga region.
Results. The organizational state of the parties in Simbirsk, Samara, Saratov and Astrakhan provinces, the number, main manifestations of their political activities and the degree of influence on society are investigated. The features of the functioning of the parties on the eve of the February revolution are considered.
Conclusions. A study of the history of political parties in the region led to the conclusion that by February 1917 there had not been any significant increase in political activity, the level of which was relatively low compared to 1905. The revolutionary parties were still disorganized and few in number, did not have their own seal, underground activities were increasingly replaced by legal ones. The Black Hundreds existed within organizations, had much more than radical forces, the number of supporters, but this did not contribute to the growth of their influence on the masses, their ideology was steadily losing its popularity. The Cadets, who retained their organizational unity, core cadres and, most importantly, were associated with the Progressive Bloc gaining strength, were in a better position. They were ready to take power into their own hands, which explains the fact that it was the Cadets who were initially in the management of the gubernias after the February revolution. The revolutionary crisis in the region is almost not observed, which means that the revolution must come to Volga region from the outside, starting, as it happened in the capital.
Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries, Octobrists, Union of the Russian People, Union of Michael the Archangel
1. Gosudarstvennyy arkhiv Rossiyskoy Federatsii (GARF) [State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)]. F. 102. Op. 246, 1916. D. 5. Ch. 68. L. 1. [In Russian]
2. Saratovskiy vestnik [Saratov bulletin]. 1916, 5 Oct. [In Russian]
3. Golos Samary [The voice of Samara]. 1915, 11 Oct. [In Russian]
4. Gosudarstvennyy arkhiv Ul'yanovskoy oblasti (GAUO) [State Archive of Ulyanovsk region (GAUO)]. F. 121. Op. 2. D. 64. L. 1. [In Russian]
5. Nash golos [Our voice]. 1915, 27 Oct. [In Russian]
6. Nash golos [Our voice]. 1915, 29 Aug. [In Russian]
7. GARF. F. 102. Op. 246, 1916. D. 9. Ch. 68. L. B. [In Russian]
8. GARF. F. 102. Op. 246, 1916. D. 9. Ch. 68. L. V. L. 3. [In Russian]
9. GARF. F. 102. Op. 246, 1916. D. 9. Ch. 69. L. B. L. 28. [In Russian]
10. GARF. F. 102. Op. 245, 1915. D. 27. Ch. 68. L. 11. [In Russian]
11. GARF. F. 102. Op. 246, 1916. D. 27. Ch. 69. L. B. L. 18. [In Russian]
12. Volga (Saratov). 1915, 9 Jan. [In Russian]
13. Antonov-Saratovskiy V. P. Pod styagom proletarskoy bor'by [Under the banner of the proletarian struggle]. Moscow; Leningrad: GIZ, 1925, vol. 1, 310 p. [In Russian]
14. GARF. F. 116. Op. 1. D. 468. L. 55 ob. [In Russian]
15. Pravye partii. Dokumenty i materialy: v 2 t. [Right parties. Documents and materials: in 2 volumes]. Moscow, 1998, vol. 2, 816 p. [In Russian]